HSBA Document Archive
Visit the archive section of the HSBA website for older updates and versions of HSBA documents.
DDR in South Sudan, July 2013
DDR in Sudan, June 2013
Failures and Opportunities: Rethinking DDR in South Sudan, Issue Brief 17, May 2011
DDR in South Sudan-Lessons Learned and Challenges ahead of the Referendum,
14-16 November 2010
South Sudan DDR Commission audit, November 2010
Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration
The disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration (DDR) programme in Sudan and South Sudan was born out of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) in 2005. DDR activity began in earnest in 2009, but after the South's secession in July 2011 the programme split and took on new directions in each country.
The CPA's Permanent Ceasefire and Security Arrangements, signed on 31 December 2004, mandated a sustainable ceasefire and the disengagement of the armed forces in Sudan, followed by the implementation of a DDR programme. Only members of the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) were eligible for DDR. All other armed groups were outlawed and their members were obliged to disband or integrate into the SPLA or SAF before they could be considered for DDR.
To facilitate the DDR process, the CPA called for a National DDR Coordination Council to oversee separate North and South Sudan DDR Commissions responsible for the design, implementation, and management of the DDR process in their respective regions. In the Three Areas (South Kordofan/Nuba Mountains, Blue Nile, Abyei), Joint DDR Commissions composed of both northern and southern staff members were responsible for DDR programming. International support for the commissions was provided principally through an Integrated UN DDR Unit made up of the UN Mission in Sudan, the UN Development Programme, the UN Children's Fund, the World Food Programme, and the UN Population Fund.
An Interim DDR Programme (IDDRP), launched in late 2005, aimed to 'set up and build the capacity of DDR institutions and civil society, while initiating basic DDR processes for selected priority target groups'. These Special Needs Groups (SNGs), as they were subsequently labelled, included elderly and disabled combatants, children associated with armed forces and groups (CAAFG), and women associated with armed forces and groups.
In November 2007 a National Strategic Plan was adopted that laid out a two-phase approach to DDR in South Sudan, with SNG caseloads in phase 1 and the voluntary demobilization of active soldiers in phase 2. A total of 180,000 participants were to participate in the DDR programme (90,000 each from the North and South). There were also provisions for subsequent phases after the CPA period. Due to numerous difficulties, however, including the challenge of building national institutions from scratch, the IDDRP failed to carry out any DDR operations apart from running a programme for CAAFG. It was eventually superseded by the Multi-Year DDR Programme (MYDDRP).
In June 2009 the MYDDRP began processing the first adult participants in the DDR programme. The programme used a list system to select participants, with army commanders from the SPLA and SAF drawing up lists of eligible programme participants. This was considered a more fair and economical system than cantonment, which had proved unsuccessful in DDR in other parts of the world.
In the end, the DDR programmes in North and South Sudan were largely unsuccessful. Each processed only a fraction of its intended caseload and the prevailing political and security situation during the CPA period meant that neither army had the will or intention to downsize its forces. At a total cost of USD 117 million, the programme had few, if any, human security benefits.
The South's secession in July 2011 ended both the CPA period and the legal imperative to undertake DDR. Since then, budget constraints and disagreement between the government and donors over the objectives and modalities of DDR in South Sudan have brought planning to a halt. As of October 2012, the prospects for future DDR initiatives in the South are uncertain.
To see the final communiqué from the South Sudan DDR Commission's review conference entitled DDR in South Sudan-Lessons Learned and Challenges ahead of the Referendum, 14-16 November 2010, click here.
To see the South Sudan DDR Commission audit undertaken by PricewaterhouseCoopers, November 2010 click here.
Updated October 2012
Relevant Tables, Maps, and Summaries
- Reintegration Training Locations, South Sudan, as of May 2011 (from HSBA Issue Brief 17)
Map showing reintegration locations in South Sudan.
- Status of Demobilization as of 23 January 2011
Table showing anticipated and completed demobilization caseloads in North and South Sudan as of 23 January 2011.
- Status of Reintegration as of January 2011
Table showing numbers of demobilized Northern and Southern ex-combatants who are receiving reintegration training or have completed reintegration training as of January 2011.
- Completed, Ongoing, and Planned Demobilization Locations as of 1 November 2010
Map showing demobilization locations in South Sudan and South Kordofan, Blue Nile, and Sennar States
- Demobilization Progress as of 19 September 2010 (UNMIS)
Table showing total demobilized men and women by location and state through September 2010
- Proposed Demobilization Timeline as of 19 September 2010 (UNMIS)
Table showing projected caseloads by location and state as of September 2010
Relevant HSBA Publications
- Failures and Opportunities: Rethinking DDR in South Sudan, HSBA Issue Brief 17, May 2011
- DDR in Sudan: Too Little, Too Late?, by Ryan Nichols, February 2011
- Unrealistic Expectations: Current Challenges to Reintegration in South Sudan, by Julie Brethfeld, June 2010
- South Sudan and DDR: Adopting an Integrated Approach to Stabilization, Papers from HSBA Workshop, Juba, South Sudan, 25-26 June 2009
- Promoting Security in South Sudan: HSBA Workshop Outcome Statement, Juba, South Sudan, 25-26 June 2009